working with pem files

Working With PEM Files

PEM certificates are used by web servers (OpenSSL and other tools). The PEM format stands for Privacy Enhanced Mail.

In fact PEM is not a certificate, but a solution to encode data.

Open SSL and other SSL tools use it as a standard format. A .pem file can include the public certificate only or the whole certificate chain.

PEM is not the only container format. There is also:

  • .csr – Certificate Signing Request (PKCS10 format)
  • .key – Contains the private key only.
  • .pfx – Other formats .pkcs12, .p12
  • .crt – Sometimes a .pem is a .crt

The format can be used in rich text documents (for example emails) and ascii, making it easy to copy paste the contents of PEM files.
A PEM file is in fact a base64 (ASCII) encoded block that start with:


and ends with


Here is an example:


How To Copy PEM Certificates

There are a few things that you have to take into consideration when copy pasting a certificate.

The key or certificate has to start with “—–BEGIN CERTIFICATE—–” and end with “—–END CERTIFICATE—–“.
Make sure you use the correct form of the dash symbols, otherwise you can break the code. The correct dash is “—–”.
You have to use the right form of line termination when saving the code. For example PEM files use unix way to terminate the line.
Some editors may use the windows way (two character line).

If you want a unix command line and you saved the pem file in windows, then you can use the translate tool. This will remove the unnecessary line termination added in windows.

$ tr -d ‘\r’ < old.pem > new.pem

A PEM file can contain a few keys and a number of certificates, for example:

  • Public key
  • Private key
  • Root certificate
It’s good practice no to store everything is one PEM file. You can make multiple files where each one contains only a part of the code. For example you could have a file with the key only.

When working with PEM files make sure you follow the steps mentioned above. Split up the PEM files by copying a part of the file, including the header and footer of the code. Put it in a new file.

In case you want to separate the key from all other partners then the file would looke something like this:


High Paying Affiliate Programs

Affiliate marketing has been really taking off in the last few years and is currently at an all-time high.

Therefore, if you are able to join with high paying affiliate programs, you stand the chance to make a tidy profit.

Of course, managing this is often easier said than done. After all, just how are you supposed to locate such programs in the first place? You will be able to find these answers and more in the article below:

The Importance of Selecting the Right Niches

Most people assume that you need to dive straight into narrowing down what affiliate program is right for you. This step actually comes a little later on. What you need to do before this, is figure out what affiliate marketing niches (how does affiliate marketing work) that you want to be involved in.

There are hundreds and hundreds of affiliate programs available to you right now. Therefore, it is relatively simple for you to pick one out and get started with them. However, doing this isn’t going to ensure that you will actually be able to make a profit.

The first thing that you need to do is to determine what the right affiliate marketing niche for you is. When you do this, you will notice that it is easier for you to select an affiliate program that is in line with both your interests and capabilities.

For one thing, when you begin selecting niches, the scope for affiliate programs narrows down more easily. Furthermore, making the effort to identify what niches are most profitable now will pay off in the future. By figuring out what sector is most likely to do well, you will be able to automatically figure out what programs are most likely to succeed too.

The Most Profitable Affiliate Marketing Niches

Now that you are aware of the significance of affiliate marketing niches, it is time to move onto determining your most profitable avenues. These are what you will discover to be the best:

1. Health

Everyone is concerned about their health. Most consumers are focused on solving common healthcare concerns. Others are involved in improving some aspect of their health. Either way, this is a niche that many individuals are interested in. This is partly why it is one of the most profitable affiliate marketing niches. Just think for a moment how much you might have spent on supplements and other dietary tools. Or, consider how much you invested in some form of fitness technique or product. As you can see, there is a lot of money to be made here.

2. Trading

At the end of the day, most people are interested in making more money. You will find that there are few people who are happy with their basic income. This is why a number of individuals try to supplement their salary in one way or another. Of course, most people want to engage in legitimate money-making ventures. Not to mention, they are preferably looking for a source of income that will not take them away from their main job. Well, this is where trading comes in. It is a legal way for people to make money for their futures, without having to show up for a second job.

3. Gambling

Gambling may seem like a rather odd niche to be engaged in but there is a lot of potential for profit here. This is mostly because it is considered to be a past time or a hobby. Now, as you are well aware, a number of people invest quite heavily in their leisure time. The more they enjoy a particular activity, the more likely they are to spend money on it.

How to Select Profitable Niches

As you can imagine, the niches mentioned above aren’t the only options available to you. Rather, they will simply allow you to make the most amount of money. So, if you are trying to figure out a profitable niche for yourself, how can you go about doing so?

Well, to start with, always take a logical approach to your niche selection. Never base your decision on gut feelings or hearsay. Instead, do the research to discover whether a particular niche is actually performing well.

At the same time, consider both current and future circumstances equally. Although a certain niche may be popular now, will this be true in a few years? As you are aware, many trends come and go. To avoid finding your profits evaporating, stick with a classic niche that is sure to stand the test of time.

How to Find a Profitable Affiliate Program

The final step, of course, is to locate the most profitable affiliate programs, once you have narrowed down your niche. The following tips will make it simpler for you to make your selection:

  • Focus on Quality: first and foremost, make sure that you are promoting a quality product. If it isn’t any good, no one will want to buy it. This makes your job a lot harder to accomplish. So, do yourself a favour and stick with programs associated with high-quality products.
  • Commission Rates Matter: when joining affiliate marketing, high commission matters. It is as simple as that. The higher the commission, the easier it is for you to make a profit. To top it off, you will not have to sell as many products to reach your goal amount, either.
  • Consider Support: it is important to join a program that offers you plenty of support. This makes it simpler to do your job and will cut down on time wasted or miscommunication. In short, you should be able to easily connective with your affiliate program managers.
  • Know the Terms and Conditions: it is vital that you read and understand all the terms and conditions in your contract. This is the best way to ensure that you maximise your profits while minimising the risk of scams or other fraudulent activities.

As you can see, high paying affiliate programs are well within your reach. By following the advice laid out here, you will put yourself in a better position to join such a program. Just make sure you have a good website with SSL and all other factors that are important to the search engines and your visitors.

how affiliate marketing works

How Does Affiliate Marketing Work?

Most people have heard of the term ‘affiliate marketing’ but few are actually sure how it works.

It is easy to end up with a mixed or confused understanding of what this type of marketing is.

Lets figure out togetherm what affiliate marketing is actually all about.

What Is Affiliate Marketing?

So, let’s start at the very beginning: just what is affiliate marketing? Now, there are quite a few definitions out there but let’s keep it simple.

In short, affiliate marketing is when you earn a commission for promoting other people’s products. All of this takes place online, across websites.

The commission for doing such a job can differ, depending on your agreement with the product owner. Some people are only paid when the product owner actually makes a sale. Others may be rewarded for simply increasing traffic to a certain website or even for recommending a product.

The Key Players in Affiliate Marketing

Now that you have a basic understanding of what affiliate marketing is, let’s move onto who the main players in this are:

The Merchant

The merchant is the product owner and might be an individual or a company. It is this agent that takes on all the costs of creating the product. Therefore, the main percentage of the sales will go to this agency or person. It is the merchant that hires the affiliate to conduct marketing on its behalf.

The Affiliate

The affiliate, like the merchant, may either be a single individual or a larger agency. An affiliate’s goal is to introduce its visitors, readers, or other consumers to the merchant’s products. Apart from this, the affiliate isn’t actually involved in the product in any way. When the affiliate makes a sale (or reaches another goal), he or she is paid a commission by the merchant.

The Network

The network is the intermediary between the merchant and the affiliate. It is the network that is responsible for tracking the movements of a consumer once an affiliate has promoted a product. This is often done with the help of cookies and similar mechanisms. In many cases, it is also the network that is responsible for paying an affiliate, once a product has been purchased on the merchant’s site.

How Affiliate Marketers Are Paid

There are a few ways to get paid. This depends mostly on the network, the niche or the negotiation.

Lets see what ways of compensation there are, with examples for each:

  • CPA (Cost-per-action): For example for every visitor that makes a purchase, you get $20.
  • CPL (Cost-per-lead): For example for every visitor that signs up to the merchant’s website (but doesn’t necessarily buy anything), you get $5.
  • Revenue Share: If your referral generates $100 to the merchant, you get 35%.
  • CPC (Cost-per-click): For every visitor that comes to your site and clicks on your ads, you get $0.30 per click
  • CPM (Cost-per-mile): Get paid for every 1000 impressions of an ad.

CPA is usually the highest paying but also the hardest to fulfill.

Pros and Cons of Affiliate Marketing

As with any venture, there are pros and cons associated with affiliate marketing. Here are the top elements you should know about:


  • No Manufacturing Required: the great thing about affiliate marketing is that you don’t have to create or construct a product. Instead, all your efforts will be focused on marketing a product. Due to this, you don’t have to be involved in any business-related decisions.
  • Low Starting Costs: since you aren’t creating anything, the cost of being involved in affiliate marketing is very low. At most, you will have to pay to be included in an affiliate program. After that, it is up to you to promote a product by using very little of your own money.
  • Can Work from Anywhere: all you really need to be engaged in this type of marketing is a laptop and internet connection. So, you can manage it at any time and from virtually anywhere.


  • Results Take Time: since affiliate marketing takes place online, you will need time to build up your marketing approach and connections. Furthermore, it will also take a while before you are able to increase your traffic to the point where it is profitable.
  • No Control Over Business: since you don’t own any aspect of the business or the product, you have no control over the direction of these elements. Instead, you simply have to go along, regardless of how they will be proceeding.
  • Competition: affiliate marketing keeps growing by leaps and bounds. As such, you will have to deal with quite a bit of competition along the way. To stay ahead, you need to be creative and figure out what tactics are best.

Making Money with Affiliate Marketing

When people finally realize what affiliate marketing is all about, their next thought is income. After all, is this form of marketing a profitable venture for the average person? The short answer to this question would be, yes. Nevertheless, there are a few more aspects to be aware of.

For one thing, when you are an affiliate, you are paid on commission. This means two things for you. First, you need to be a good salesperson. As such, you need to have a proper marketing strategy in place or be the owner of a good blog or social media profile. After all, it is only by persuading consumers to make a purchase that you can make money.

The second thing to take away from being paid a commission is that you are only receiving a small portion of the total price of a product or price that you have recommended. Therefore, to make real money, you are going to need to convince a significant number of people to purchase a particular item. It is only then that you will be able to make a real profit.

While this may seem like a dissuasive argument, it isn’t so. It is possible for you to make a considerable amount of money with affiliate marketing. To do so, however, you need to be aware of the right avenues and techniques.

How to Be Successful At Affiliate Marketing

It is relatively simple to be successful at affiliate marketing, as long as you know how to go about it the right way. To start with, only align yourself with legitimate merchants and affiliate programs. It can also help if you choose a quality product that preferably, you believe in. Finally, you will need to be relentless (yet subtle) in the way you market to your consumers. It is only by doing this that you will be able to make a notable profit.

These are the top things you need to know about affiliate marketing and how it works. Focus on this information and you should be able to handle this form of marketing quite well.